of the 14th International Conference on Information and Intelligent
Systems (IIS 2003 Proceedings), 24-26 september 2003., Varaždin –
Croatia; ISBN 953-6071-22-3; Published by Faculty of Organization
and Informatics Varaždin, University of Zagreb
Modelling and Simulation as a Planning Method for Printing Houses
Modernization with Job Definition Format
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Graphics Art, Zagreb
University of Zagreb, Faculty of Graphics Art, Zagreb
Modelling and Simulation as a Planning Method for Printing
Houses Modernization with Job Definition Format
Abstract: Professional graphic production today
uses network system as the basis of data transmission business platform,
among departments such as prepress, typographic, print and other steps
in realization of a graphic product. The basis for all new solutions
od printing and IT integration in the graphic industry systematically
includes XML technology development trends, trends of digital print,
computing and the Internet. Application of such intergration in Croatia
has initiated numerous issues. Consulting experts has a purpose of
accelerating the exploatation of new equipment whose software includes
intern solutions in programmes and languages of the XML family. The
suggestion is to process the investment by simulation in order to
create basis for reviewing several possible solutions.
Keywords: JDF, XML, Simulation
Application of telecommunication systems began in prepress when speeds
exceeding 1 Mbit/s were ensured. In order to direct data that arrived
to the printhouse towards the printing machine they have to be amended,
analysed or even changedbecause there are still no standards including
printing forms and management of electronic part of printing. Therefore,
developments in communication systems in printing introduce the JDF
(Job Definition Format *1) whose goal is to crealte a range of protocols
and automations to define printing jobs. They use network transmission,
printing machines management and processes including commercial industrial
software. The purpose of the JDF is to create an environment suitable
for online printing comprising technical, functional, structural and
business aspect. Discussions on definitions and content of the JDF
also include final users who add a touch of practicality to this development.
The JDF, together with CIM (Computer Integrated Manufacturing) in
printing industry, aims at total integration and automation of all
production processes. The JDF itself, is not a generally applied solution
today. It is only a system to be built and adjusted to every single
situation. Softwer development includes individual adjusting to the
production specific for each production facility. The entire software
has been prepared for XML databeses that overtake instrumental and
program data. Today, in Croatia (*2), there are solutions of Prepress
and Pres Departments integration successfully installed through CTP
(Computer to Print). This unifies activities of seven subprocesses.
These are graphic design, typographic modelling, reprophotographic
photographs processing, creation of a print form, adjustments of the
printing machine, print control and print management. All mentioned
parametres are to be aforehead defined in the Department of graphic
preparation and are transmitted via media (disk) from one department
and device to another.
2. STANDARDIZATION IN PRINTING
A good and stable characteristic of the JDF is its complete basis
in the XML (*3) (www.w30rg/TR/REC-xml), which ensures full flexibility
of future development. The XML most efficiently supports all Internet
and Intranet applications. This is the true basis of communication
between the exterior and the interior if the printing house. Integration
of Processes in Prepres and Postpress = CIP4, thus opens new departments
according to the topics, interests, levels of menagement influence
but also to evaluation of new print technologies. A comprehensive
cooperation of everybody included in creation of standardization and
integrated print manufacturing. In a short time the JDF has become
an internationally recognized topic. Although standardization has
only reached its conceptual level, the names of CIP4 consortium members
(*4) guarantee the imminence of joining internation programmes. The
CIP4 consortium has engaged almost all institutes and development
centres, especially in Europe, for training in each issue of the graphic
industry. The most aggressive companies include: Fujifilm Electronic
Imaging, Agfa, Printcafe Software, Inc., Heidelberger Druckmaschinen
AG, Best GmbH, Wohlenberg, Graphics Microsystems, Fraunhofer IGD,
Eltromat Polygraph, Koenig & Bauer AG. The current top issues
offered comprise the following: Improvment of Work in the Preparation
Phase, Trial Samples and Standardization of Color Management in Printing
remote Control, Binding Control and Management, Kepping IS Documentation
in Printing Industry, Systematic Work in Graphic Preparation, Automated
Network Control of Colour for Large Editions, Automation of e-network
in Newpapers, Software Translators for PPF, Colour in Print and Final
Processes. This example shows that the consortium takes care of organizing
transfer of knowledge by permanenet organization of seminars on certain
topics which may last two to three weeks at a single price of approximately
€ 1,000. Studying standardization and application of the JDF exists
only in its beginning phase but it seems essential to realize that
printing can only survive by accepting it in the struggle against
the more and more prevailing web design and e-books.
3. PROJECT SOLUTIONS
Before accepting the JDF system it was necessary to define all details
of the production nots. A detailed description of the procedure, as
a hierarchycal sequence of steps with diversified structure was necessary.
Estimation of work planning and processing possibilities had to be
executed in cooperation with partners, users through temporary distribution
of parts of work in different locations and different working points.
The JDF relies on a complete database on the printing house capacity,
which can only be applied in the future, because the existing machines
do not allow access to computers working under XML protocol.
Introduction of the JDF in printing houses depends on the future investment
plans and the market. The first step is production of design documentation
with precisely defined level of the existing automatization od each
machine. The printmen accept the option of keeping the existing machines
and organization. The first information on business define that production
management should be changed considerably necause some workin places
are not necessary any more. The JDF through XML enables full transmissioon
of data status on final and continued processes of neighbouring operations
by using a programme. Suggestion have appeared that some operation
should cease to exist. This should be defined in a programme task
by recording every event. We have used the project documentation to
support the accuracy of the decision more relieably. If the machine
is retained, with no possibilities of connecting to the XML protocol
(in our case the paper cutting machine) the issue remains wether a
new JDF procedure may be organized following the phase that was skipped.
Besides the possibility of keeping the existing machine the manufacturer's
suggestion is to buy entirely new machine. There are several different
possibilities. How to increase the printing house business success
if a major investment has to be performed?
4. MODELLING AND SIMULATION
The modelling of printing processes is suggested in the same way as
it would be with the final JDF protocol. The production time is ascribed
by the "industrial software" managed by the JDF. In this
way the procurer and the end user will through the JDF have a realistic
plan of the beginning and the end and the possibility of constant
insight of the production status. Every work station can collect statistical
data on calculation and price. Since format changes of different commercial
industrial programmes present major problems of application it is
necessary to create modules that would be ablt to, using dimulation,
solve the stated application problems.
To increase productivity, the manufacturers of printing equipment,
software and machines for final processing, focus on decreasing machine
preparation time and pay less attention to accelerate machine operation.
Simulations comprise the CIP4 principles where the whole process is
regarded as a unit developing compatibility of all machines, including
those of various manufacturers and vatious technical characteristics.
Simulation expands to the MIS (Management Information System) and
the JDF that become crucial in communication among the procurer, the
manufacturer, and the supplier in productio process control.
Modelling and simulation has been introduced as a method because we
would like to reach an optimal level of decisionmaking without major
expenses. The variables may have different levels of complexity because.
There are several reasons to it. Firstly, production processes with
new machines are becoming more and more automated and the investment
feasibility should be proved. Secondly, the average printing time
is decreased, thus allowing more orders. Thirdly, a permanenet development
of algorithm and decreasing computer pricesoffer new possibilities
for an automated distribution of maniufacturing printing processes.
The JDF is ideal for simulation because it is developed outside the
interior need at the printing house as a communication network of
a printing company and its supporting activities, a supplier and an
editor. The automation of each production process is covered and expanded
to complete business transformation. There are several acpects of
this issue. The first represents the goal to establish higher speeds
of certain operations and decrease of routine functions. The second
includes automated printing by using large quantities of paper and
different processing. The third shows that since structures in the
printing houses stay as they are, the software for optimalization
of the process management should be adjusted in order to activate
decisionmakin based on a database. The fourth includes creation of
virtual printing organization to study international processes as
one organization. Business improvement, may be substantial with completely
new business abd market possibilities. This encourages changes in
management structure because organizations cooperate in a different
way due to new way of connecting. The fifth aspect of new automation
in printing industry is based on the appearance of digital printing.
The JDF simulation can find its widest area of work here. It is also
the most diffiicult one because the technologies of conventional and
digital printing have to be harmonized.
Simulation is applied in the management of printing operations flow.
The chapters include: management of all work phases flow, digital
trial printing, adjustment and colour management, computer construction
of bending, cutting, computer editing, sorting of files on business
procedures, creating reports as a basis for supporting future decisions
on package printings. Thus, files including mastering of own MIS to
be used inside the company, in a way protected from competition. This
iterative process is ideal for complex simulations with the goal of
improving production procedures through larger use of equipment, people
and automation development.
5. CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION TO FURTHER SIMULATION RESEARCH
The CIP4 consortium has set a task to integrate the whole graphics
, not only separate areas. Print used on packagings has its specific
characteristics and within this task there exist a need of considering
printing techniques horizontally, in order ot increase efficiency
through automation. Almost all printing techniques have been present
here and it is considered to be the most complex technique in graphic
application. This is where a virtual printing house shall be especially
important as the basis of all planning. It is necessary to raise the
issue of packaging print to an international level because there is
no unique drive that may meet the modern requirements set by end users
and their techology conditions on one hand and designers with their
alway new suggestions.
Digital printing is best shown in the area of packaging print as a
novelty that has least endangered the existing technologies. It has
done nothing but improved and supplemented some of the existing gaps.
On the other hand, digital printing presents the focal activity of
successful automation and is the centre of initiating activities implemented
by the CIP consortium. By itself, it comprises modern computers, so
it has been rather simple to create the development of the newly arriving
JDF. The important data provided for the management through digital
print software have initiated discussions on such MIS ideas considering
other, almost entire, graphic systems.
No integration of production and applicationof the JDF is possible
if, for example we would like to connect modern digital print and
large editions without implementing computer management in these other
techniques. Such offer is up to the old equipment manufacturers with
the purpose of not having to develop unique hardware or software.
The packaging print will still be using machines where the most various
technologies have been integrated for a long time, including steel
print and silkscreen print. These same products offer new equipment
fully matching the system of connection to the JDF technology and
digital printing. italni tisak.
This has been realized by the largest equipment manufacturers who
have united their ideas on graphic system integration and established
a CIP4 consortium placed on the JDF as a basis of management IS. In
this way, the MIS, image and text processing, trial impressing, printing,
finalization and dispatch become integrated.