Ivana Žiljak

Keywords : Hologram,Packaging material holography,Holography in Croatia, Statistics and databases on holography in Croatia ,Hologram application,Colors in holography, Raster elements in holography,Hologram design,Hologram types,Hologram application,Protection,Producer,Consumer

1 Introduction

The motive for this research is the sudden interest of the producers and the growing implementation of holography in areas that are different if compared to one another. At the same time this paper is a report on the follow-up of the success in holograph application and efforts to forge them. It is an analysis of the existing designer solutions, a comparison of their efficiency, and the relationship of holography as a marketing element in respect to the end user. My opinion is that in modern graphic product protection it is necessary to develop, use and coordinate the latest design and technological achievements, especially holograms. Holography has the tendency to develop in the direction of mass application with the goal being to protect both the producer and the consumer; applied on food and pharmaceutical products, on documents, financial stamps, banknotes and all kinds of graphic products and products for the media. Holography is used in the control of financial flows, tax control and transactions on state level basis.

Together with my co-workers I carried out the testing of various holographic foils and various techniques of foil application. Samples made by various world wide holographic product makers were researched, most of all those coming from the Optaglio hologram producers, designed for printing in various temperature areas. The application of holograms is expanding in the area of documents and they are later complemented with laser print. The behaviour of various holographic foil was observed in the temperature area ranging from 110*C to 190 *C. Cold application (self-adhesive type) and thermal application were compared. As to the design, comparison was made between the continuing form design and the application with single and double registers.

The paper gives an analysis of all the goods produced in our market with hologram application, determines which firms are applying holograms, which type of holograms are used, how they were applied. A database has been made for this work containing data on the hologram types, types of hologram application, hologram complexity, hologram size, the type of products holograms were applied to, holograms as a designer and marketing element, holography as the final authenticity control, on hologram suppliers and hologram prices in Croatia. This is a report on the state of the system in Croatia with a projection of the trend of hologram application alterations and hologram development. The research gives data on hologram application in recent years and the up-to-date situation.

This paper gives the experience of hologram application and the problem of applying holograms on transportation tickets (tram, bus, railway). The graphic industry has found itself completely unprepared as to the technique of hologram application, so that there are cases of purchasing finished holographic stickers, holographic paper or blank paper with printed holograms (because printing works are not prepared to use technologies for good-quality application of holograms). Contemporary printing works are not equipped with special units for hologram application. They have machines equipped for foil printing.

This paper also contains measurements necessary for making financial stamps (holograms on stamps for cigarettes, alcoholic beverages). The problems linked with automatic implementation of such stamps in the market are discussed. As these fall into the group of a certain kind of securities, the proposals for having the stamps returned to financial services is being discussed.

2 Hologram application on packaging material for protection purposes

The risk in product protection is increasing, as for instance, in the pharmaceutical industry. According to the World Health Organization

(Erik Swain, Trends in Security Packaging, /www.devicelink.com/pmpn/index.html) 10% of all medicaments are falsely labeled, and 60% of these have dangerous active ingredients. According to the same source, as many as 40% of all medicaments are faked. This issue is becoming more significant in connection with product sale through the Internet. The pharmaceutical industries are developing a specific strategy of determining the risk type for each product.

A multi-level approach to protection techniques should be applied in protecting products with the help of packaging material. The first step in a product’s packaging material protection is by using holograms in printing, a technique that may not be reproduced or copied by any other graphic technique.

The most frequent protecting supplements are those that are determined by machine reading. Furthermore, there are procedures of application with optically varying numbers, invisible and electronic colors, micro-texts, animated images, morphol images (changes from text to log, for example), and oncoming new generations of materials. Let’s add colors that change under different kinds of illumination, or colors that change if they are touched, colors that change depending on the temperature. Not all the listed elements against forging are available to all, and they are poorly readable or not readable at all, nor can they be reproduced with the usual scanning equipment and other forging procedures.

The greater part of the packaging material surface is reserved for obligatory information and thus a designer’s job is becoming more and more essential in order to bring into accordance legal, designer and safety issues. All companies insist on instantaneous recognition of a corporative identity.

A designer has a major job here – he must build-in all the newest graphic and printing protective elements and must create a conceptually clear and recognizable graphic product design.

The most important element in protection techniques is to bear in mind the necessity of quick recognition and differentiation of forged products from the original ones. The best thing to do is to study all kinds of methods; for instance, the security measures against forging the Euro. Nevertheless, forged money is implemented, more or less successfully. Software designs for banknote protection are not easily available, but this also goes to say that experts should be consulted when planning and designing packaging material.

More protective elements will not contribute to general success if there is no training organized in order to educate on the existence and importance of these graphic designs, and in being able to tell the difference between the originals and the possible forgeries. In the protection strategy there should be continuous development of new patents in order to stop the progress of forging and various alternative-forging methods. There should be no set standards in the protection procedure used in printing, but constant improvements through technology and science should be implemented as well as through new types of physical and chemical protection systems. The best protection method is top coding in image and colour recognition, but such protection is possible to determine only on basis of laser reading systems, and this does not make it possible for a regular consumer to verify anything. It is necessary to alter protection strategies, and this brings new expenditures. But on the other hand, if this matter is not treated with due respect, there may be significant damages.

Although holograms have not been in use for a long period of time, the first designs have been forged with the help of foil printing, by addition of blank silver foil (with no holograms).

This is a warning that great care will be needed in expanding hologram application in the role of a protective element and in hologram designing. There should be a maximum number of clearly evident colourings and larger – more noticeable colourings and greater – more observable contrasts in design.

The paper contains the analysis of a new trend in hologram application for special emergency cases. For instance in sports’ games and mass quantities of tickets for big open shows (where there are no numerated seats).

3 The advantages of holograms in comparison to other protection techniques in printing

- Holograms cannot be reproduced or copied with the help other graphic techniques

- Hologram have a unique optical effect, recognizable with the bare eye

- When holograms are moved under certain angles the colour and tone of the graphic elements are altered

- Holograms may be created with the help of a computer, simulating the

appearance of the hologram, as well as the changes when observed under different angles

Holograms may have a multi-level approach, for instance the MULTIMATRIX® hologram – a multi-level authenticity and several levels of visual safety characteristics

Holograms can go through postpress intervention under various temperatures

Holograms may be cut with various clichès with difficulty that may be applied afterwards as one cliché on top of the other

There is possibility of applying optically varying colours, invisible and electronic colours,

There is possibility of applying micro-texts, animated images, and the on-coming new generations of material

There is possibility of numbering, and having a date on the holograms

A holographic ribbon may be cut in such a way that the stamp form is right only after opening the packaging material

4 Special multi-level protection in holography (Multimatrix holograms)

There are holograms with multi-level protection level (Multimatrix holograms).

These holograms have as many as three levels of reading:

1.Recognition with the bare eye – no tools are necessary

Holograms are observed under a light, by rotating the image – horizontally, vertically, rotation. A kinetic effect is observed (linear, spreading, rotation, counter-rotation). Dynamic holographic micro-texts may be read, 2D/3D and 3D (stereographic) display

2. Professional control

Micro-texts and micro-graphics are controlled. Special lasers are used in case the cryptogram (covered image that may be seen with the help of a laser beam) or dyinagram (dynamic cryptogram) should be observed.

The best types of protection are top sorts of coding for image and colour recognition, but such protection may be read only with the help of machines with various laser systems, so that the customer cannot check anything without having tools.

3. Forensic laboratory

Nano-texts and nanographics (05 microns+), coded nanostructures, coded nanobarcodes are observed

Other hologram types that are analysed in this paper and the observed characteristics:

a) The 2D hologram consists of two-dimensional images. Different colours and positions in each layer are preset. Each layer stands for itself and there is no feeling of depth nor three dimensions.

b) The 2D/3D hologram consists of multiple two-dimensional layers where hologram images are positioned next to one another with visual depth in order to create the effect of a three-dimensional hologram structure. There is a good visual depth between various layers and brilliance on the first layer.

c) The micro-text on the hologram is observed by the bare eye with difficulty or is invisible. It may be seen clearly with a magnifying glass.

d) A Flip-Flop hologram is designed in such a way that two different images may be seen when looking from different angles. When the angle of observation changes horizontally (from left to right) or vertically (moving up and down).

e) The kinetic hologram contains „moving pictures“ and is analysed from various angles.

A logo or graphic image may be incorporated into holographic patterns with the help of special digital hologram technologies and 2d/3d technologies. Animated and 3D holograms may be created with the help of animation computer programs.

f) Transparent holograms on transparent foil or bag are applied on documents. The text and image under the hologram may be seen and read under the hologram label even though it also has an image.

g) Holograms with printed serial numbers. A serial number/numbering is a special protective element on holograms. It has a wide field of application against forging.

h) Dot-Matrix Holograms allow putting an unlimited number of computer-generated dots onto the hologram. The Dot-Matrix Hologram is the result of a design consisting of many tiny dots where each dot has its colour contouring. They create the impression of changing images.

i) 3D holograms where the created depth is real. Each image part moves independently in respect to the other image and the images overlap. Each layer is scanned with exactness with the 3D scanner (object observing angle), the color and blending, and is later computer prepared for producing the master. Certain layers are computer simulated before they go into production in order to diminish the expenses.

5 Program solutions and hologram simulation with special raster elements

Holograms that contain vector and pixel graphics with especially designed raster forms are a completely new method of protection in printing. This paper gives a proposal how to solve the question of programming and applying such raster and authentic PostScript programming code.

Each function may be proven and repeated by introducing the function into the image record.

The application of specially designed rasters may be very wide. Special forms of raster elements, various lines and angles may be designed on holograms because they reach a resolution of 250,000 dpi, in several levels. When observing from various angles, an image with various rasters may be seen, high and low lines, with special stress on selection of details. This is seen when the angle of observation changes horizontally (from left to right) or vertically (moving up and down).

Each hologram element may be given separate rasters. Therefore rasters themselves may have a design role and be carriers of the visual message because they themselves have special forms. The hologram form may become the same as the form of the raster dot in the hologram. It is necessary to design the raster type, frequency, and angle of progress.

6 Conclusion:

When marking a product there must be a top designer and marketing appearance. A hologram is a unique form for product protection and gives the product additional value as a marketing element. Holograms open many possibilities in developing multi-layer visual messages, messages in motion and a 3D presentation. It is possible to postpress them on packaging material in modified series and forms, for each production series separately. Small editions may be produced with digital printing, reaching top-quality results with modest production expenses. Such small editions are especially suited for: celebrations, business gifts. Even one single copy may be produced for some special occasion.

Certain groups of business entities are ready for the implementation of holography and this means specialization and implementation of holography in general. This paper covers the situation in respect to holography in our country, and makes comparisons with the use of holograms in the world. The report points to the trend of protecting all products with the help of holography, especially food products where holography would be applied even in cases when the packaging material is not only a graphic product. Such products are, for instance: fresh food products. A hologram is an important way to prove that a product is authentic, that it is not genetically modified, and it guarantees that the package contains what is written on the packaging material.