Primjena e-learninga u grafičkoj struci

LJ.Ille., M.Škornjak


Autorice u ovom članku razmatraju primjenu e-learninga u grafičkoj struci te prikazuju i analiziraju provođenje e-learninga kroz on-line tečajeve raznih informatičkih i edukativnih kuća koji su vezani uz računalnu grafiku, integraciju e-learninga u visoko obrazovne ustanove te postojanje e-learninga u grafičkim poduzećima u Hrvatskoj. Svrha provedenog istraživanja bila je ustvrditi u kolikoj mjeri se e-learning primjenjuje u grafičkoj struci. Rezultati utvrđuju limitirano korištenje ali i stvarnu potrebu za e-learningom što zahtjeva ciljani rad na informiranju korisnika i promoviranju e-learninga.
Ključne riječi: e-learning, grafička struka, on-line tečaj, visoko obrazovne ustanove, grafička poduzeća.

Use of E‐learning in Graphic Industry Professions

Ille Lj., Škornjak M.


In this article authors demonstrate the use of e-learning in graphic industry professions, show and analyse the implementation of e-learning through on-line courses of diverse information and educational institutions connected to computer graphics and e-learning integration in higher education institutions as well as the existence of e-learning in Croatian companies. The aim of this research was to establish to which extend e-learning is applied in graphic profession. The results state limited usage, but also state a necessity for e-learning which all together requires work focused on informing the users and promotion of e-learning.
Key words: e-learning, graphic profession, on-line course, higher education institutions, graphic companies.

1. Introduction
Development of the Internet has influenced changes in business and human communication. New methods of learning are being created due to development of the global network and Internet technologies. Distance learning (or e-learning) has become a new trend.
Many educational institutions act to comply with the market laws and use different methods of simple learning and didactic multimedia aids. E-learning is one of the methods relying not only on the content but also on the diversity of the learning process.
E-learning is becoming an important form of both formal and informal education and a significant element of lifelong education.

2. E-learning
Modern education today cannot be anticipated without application of information and communication technology (ICT) and everything it provides: from simple techniques of using slides in presentations, via providing sources on web pages, to complex learning and teaching systems.
E-learning can be defined as an instructional content or a method of learning using electronic technologies. This could be realized through storage and delivery of educational material on CDs/DVDs, Web Based Training -WBT, Computer Based Training - CBT, Video on demand -VoD, Audio on demand - AoD, quizzes, synchronized and unsynchronized conferences.
The process of learning has recognized numerous benefits of e-learning: upgrading of teaching methods, simple system administration, wider choice of curricula, larger and faster flow of information, higher flexibility of attending classes, more independence when studying, higher flexibility to educational needs and previous knowledge, development of new literacy forms.
These benefits, as well as accessibility to educational material provided by e-learning, have extensively upgraded the development of lifelong education. E-learning has enabled distance learning, which makes attending classes to all students who cannot attend classes in person possible. Students who work and have very little free time are now able to acquire skills and knowledge without leaving their place of work or their home, mastering the quantity of educational material and the rhythm of learning that suits them best.

Numerous directives and guidelines of the EU and other important international institutions pay a lot of attention to implementation of e-learning. Considerable funds have been ensured for such purposes, enabling systematic implementation at national levels. The results can be seen in wider scope of education and knowledge as well as higher competitiveness of the entire economy.
For the majority of actors in the area of education who believe that it enables better accessibility, e-learning has become a constituent component of their strategy. Universities of Rijeka (in October 2006) and Zagreb (in May 2007) adopted strategies of implementing e-learning which encourage and actively support e-learning and application of ICT in learning and teaching at all levels of university education.
University of Zagreb mostly applies a mixed approach to e-learning, a combination of traditional teaching and classes held in a virtual environment. Faculties and academies of the University are independent in choosing their own form and intensity of e-learning, complied with the area of expertise of the related studies or course.
To achieve higher level of mobility of teachers, students and materials between the Faculty in Croatia and in the EU and following recommendations of the Bologna Convention, the Department of Multimedia and IS of the Faculty of Graphic Arts in Zagreb (KMIS) has implemented e-learning through its KMIS - LMS system.
By taking the course a student receives the right of using KMIS-LMS e-learning system. The system has been protected and ensures privacy. The KMIS-LMS is structured in modules with stored lectures and practical exercises. The learning process is monitored, progress is recorded and students’ knowledge is evaluated (through checks and tests). The KMIS-LMS e-learning system comprises 30% of the final course grade.
Besides the KMIS-LMS e-learning system, the students at the Faculty of Graphic Arts can take part at distance lectures in Digital Multimedia and Multimedia Communications at Technical faculties in Vienna and Budapest.

Investment into human knowledge and development through education and professional training focused on the development of knowledge and skills required by modern information society is an important component of achieving higher economic development.
We are witnessing more and more lectures being offered on the Internet. Web technologies influence the learning process and create new thinking methods.
Apart from using new technologies in upgrading of traditional teaching, there is also distance learning, whose main goal is to establish a more flexible infrastructure and access to such form of learning to every student. Today, web based courses (online courses) comprise almost 80 per cent of total distance learning courses. Online courses enable larger number of people to improve their knowledge according to their respective capacities, and these contribute to development of society in general.
The majority of educational institutions in Croatia provide for a range of courses, workshops, and curricula in Graphics through traditional teaching forms, and only a few offer online courses.

Use of the computer has quickly found its right position in the area of education. It has proved to be an important element of quality and an aid in crossing barriers which working people come across in acquiring knowledge and education: very complex materials, limited time for education, mastering large quantity of information.
E-learning as a support to information in educational process systematically removes barriers such as time, location, etc. Due to its advantages, i.e. flexibility of time and place of education, it becomes an efficient and economic method of education and is implemented as a reasonable addition to traditional education and professional training. The Internet provides suitable technical support for organization of e-learning and offers possibilities of expanding education under new conditions.
Considering its changed method and form we wanted to check the needs of people employed in graphic industry related to implementation of new methods and forms into permanent training programmes and their agility to take part in e-learning programmes.
The following companies participated in the survey: Vjesnik d.d., Slobodna dalmacija d.d., Belišće d.d., Zrinski d.d. and Tiva Tiskara Varaždin d.o.o.

Diagram 1

Diagram 1 shows that the surveyed companies want to keep pace with time and that they look after permanent professional training and education of their employees.
All participants emphasized that investment into education of the employees is insufficient.
The most favourable duration of education for 50% of the interviewees is a long-term education lasting few months to up to one year, organized in training blocks/sessions.
When asked if they had been informed about the option of e-learning, 80% of the interviewees provided a positive answer. Over 70% of participants favoured traditional methods of transferring knowledge and only 29% stated they were ready to take part in e-learning. There are areas that cannot be taught only electronically. Therefore a combination of learning via the Internet and traditional learning has been suggested.
An interesting detail has been noticed about the majority of the interviewees who know about educational institutions providing e-learning trainings in graphic profession but none of them knew which professional courses head been offered.

Diagram 5

Survey results showed that companies need to be better informed about e-learning, its benefits and drawbacks as well as various programmes of professional training provided by educational institutions. E-learning enables higher performance and quality of professional training, better regional coverage and availability of education to employees in the graphic industry.

3. Conclusion
Every institution that wants to keep pace with time has to consider permanent professional training and education of its employees. Numerous changes always ask for new knowledge.
The Faculty of Graphic Arts has implemented e-learning as an integral part of education. Implementation and application of e-learning provides for upgrading of quality of education, increases the Faculty competitiveness, to its teachers and students it enables fulfilment of new roles in educational process, provides higher accuracy of preparation, modernization and transfer of learning material, encourages active participation and independence of studying, provides for more options of exchanging information and discussion among participants and enables higher flexibility to the needs of studies. Young people acquire knowledge and more experience, they become more interactive, they are trained for using technologies through lifelong learning.
Research results have shown that Croatian graphic companies have been acquainted with the new method of learning, the e-learning, but have not yet started implementing it. The participants in the survey preferred traditional learning methods. The need for e-learning exists, due to numerous advantages offered by such method of learning, particularly related to flexible time and space for learning. However, the level of knowledge about such learning forms in graphic companies is insufficient and the actors of e-learning related to graphic programmes (Faculty of Graphic Arts, educational institutions) should take more active part in promoting it.
It is worth emphasizing that the advantages of e-learning alone are not sufficient. It also takes motivation and first and foremost, permanent participation of all parties interested in the process of implementation and application of e-learning. Only then will e-learning become an effective means of acquiring new knowledge and competences and ensure a continuous access to getting new and refreshing old knowledge, easier balancing of work and everyday life responsibilities with lifelong learning.